Language Loyalties:
A Source Book on the Official English Controversy
Edited by James Crawford

Language Loyalties
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University of Chicago Press, 1992; 532pp

Table of Contents

Editor's Introduction, James Crawford
Part I. Historical Roots of U.S. Language Policy
A Polyglot Nation (1983), Diego Castellanos
The German Language in Pennsylvania (1753), Benjamin Franklin
Why No Official Tongue? (1976), Shirley Brice Heath
Proposal for an American Language Academy (1780), John Adams
Declaration of Linguistic Independence (1789), Noah Webster
Federal English (1987), Dennis Baron
'American' As Official Language (1923), Washington J. McCormick
Policies Toward American Indian Languages: A Historical Sketch (1992), Jon Reyhner
'Barbarous Dialects Should Be Blotted Out ...' (1887), J. D. C. Atkins
Spanish Language Rights in California: Constitutional Debates (1879)
Language Rights and New Mexico Statehood (1972), U.S. Commission on Civil Rights
English and Colonialism in Puerto Rico (1978), Language Policy Task Force
Crusade for Americanization (1988), John Higham
One Flag, One Language (1917), Theodore Roosevelt
Part II. The Debate Over Official English,
A Chronology of the Official English Movement (1990), Jamie B. Draper and Martha Jiménez
The Case for Official English (1985), Senator S. I. Hayakawa
Official English: Another Americanization Campaign? (1985), Joseph Leibowicz
Proposed Official English Amendments to the U.S. Constitution (1981-89)
The Misdirected Policy of Bilingualism (1983), Senator Walter Huddleston
Viva la Roja, Blanca y Azul (1984), Delegate Baltasar Corrada
Preserve the Primacy of English (1988), Representative Norman Shumway
Official English: A Concession to Nativism (1988), Representative Stephen J. Solarz
U.S. English (1983), Guy Wright
'Ohio English': A Modest But More Specific and Patriotic Proposal Than the One Offered Recently U.S. English (1988),
    Roger Shuy
Dade County 'Anti-Bilingual' Ordinance (1980)
State Official Language Statutes and Constitutional Amendments (1920-88)
Prop. 63 Deserves Approval (1986), San Francisco Examiner
Language Purity (1986), Bangor Daily News
Legislating Language (1987), Denver Post
English-Only A Mistake: Amendment Sends Wrong Message to Tourists (1988), Palm Beach Post
Vote No on Bigotry (1988), Tempe Daily News Tribune
Ruling Upholds Need To Respect Free Speech (1990), San Antonio Light
In Defense of Our Common Language . . . (1984), U.S. English
Resolution on Language Rights (1987), Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages
Resolution Opposing Official English/English Only Measures (1989), Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund
The English Plus Alternative (1987), English Plus Information Clearinghouse
New Mexico English Plus Resolution (1989)
Native American Languages Act (1990)
Part III. Symbolic Implications of Language Conflict
'Talk English –You Are in the United States' (1988), Carlos Alberto Montaner
The Displaced Anxieties of Anglo-Americans (1988), Joshua Fishman
What's Behind Official English? (1988), James Crawford
On the Curious Question of Language in Miami (1992), Max Castro
Language Struggles in a Changing California Community (1992), John Horton and José Calderón
What Happens When English Only Comes to Town? A Case Study of Lowell, Massachusetts (1992), Camilo Peréz-Bustillo
The English Only Movement: Social Bases of Support and Opposition among Anglos and Latinos (1992), Carol Schmid
Language, Power, and Identity in Multiethnic Miami (1992), Joanne Bretzer
English Plus: Responding to English Only (1992), Mary Carol Combs
Part IV. The Question of Minority Language Rights
The Confusing State of Minority Language Rights (1986), Bill Piatt
Meyer v. Nebraska (1923)
U.S. ex rel. Negrón v. New York (1970)
Soberal-Pérez v. Heckler (1982)
The Educational Rights of Language-Minority Children (1992), Martha Jiménez
Lau v. Nichols (1974)
Martin Luther King Elementary School Children v. Ann Arbor School District (1979)
Bilingual Ballots: Their History and a Look Forward (1992), John Trasviña
Castro v. State of California (1970)
Puerto Rican Organization for Political Action (PROPA) v. Kusper (1973)
Language Rights in the Private Sector (1991), Edward M. Chen
Gutiérrez v. Municipal Court (1988)
Asian American Business Group v. Pomona (1989)
Yñiguez v. Mofford (1990)
Language Minorities and the Equal Protection Clause (1987), Harvard Law Review
Hernández v. New York
Bilingual Public Services in California (1992), American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California
Part V. Language Diversity and Education
Spanish Language Shift: Educational Implications (1988), Siobhan Nicolau and Rafael Valdivieso
Introducing the Bilingual Education Act (1967), Senator Ralph Yarborough
Teaching in the Mother Tongue (1967), A. Bruce Gaarder
Aquí No Se Habla Español (1970), Rubén Salazar
Affirmative Ethnicity (1977), Noel Epstein
An Educator's Rationale for Native-Language Instruction (1984), José A. Cárdenas
The Romantic Trap of Bilingual Education (1985), Richard Rodríguez
Sink-or-Swim 'Success Stories' and Bilingual Education (1982), Stephen D. Krashen
The Bilingual Education Act: A Failed Path (1985), William J. Bennett
Secretary Bennett versus Equal Educational Opportunity (1985), James J. Lyons
Against Our Best Interest: The Attempt to Sabotage Bilingual Education (1992), Lily Wong Fillmore
Language: The Psyche of a People (1987), Robert Bunge
Official English: Implications for Deaf Education (1989), Ceil Lucas
The Costs of Monolingualism (1988), Catherine Snow and Kenji Hakuta
Part VI. International Perspectives on Language Politics
The Curse of Babel (1973), Einar Haugen
Language Conflicts and Political Community (1967), Ronald F. Inglehart and Margaret Woodward
Quebec's 'Distinctive Character' and the Question of Minority Rights (1992), Jonathan Lemco
Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982)
Quebec's Bill 101: Charter of the French Language (1977)
Economic Perspectives on Language: The Relative Value of Bilingualism in Canada and the United States (1992)
    David E. Bloom and Gilles Grenier
Coping with Language Diversity: Australia and the Soviet Union (1989), Gregory Guy
Australia's National Policy on Languages (1988), Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Employment, Education and
Language As a Factor in Inter-Group Conflict (1975), Harold R. Isaacs
Afterword: The Official English Movement: Reimagining America, Geoffrey Nunberg
Suggestions for Further Reading


"Truly superb. ... Belongs on the shelf of every person even mildly interested in the political struggle over language."
– Sanford Levinson, The Nation

"A work of sound and original scholarship ... ranging from the texts of laws, early legislative debates, court opinions, newspaper commentary, expert testimony, and partisan opinion pieces – all skillfully woven together."
– Dennis Baron, University of Illinois

"An invaluable resource for policymakers, educators, and all citizens who want to understand the current debate – and take action to empower all our citizens."
– Keith Geiger, president, National Education Association

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