Los Angeles Times
Sunday, October 26, 1997
Bilingual Education: A Squandered Opportunity
For the sake of youngsters, a 3-year limit should be sought
The Los Angeles Times Poll results should not have been surprising:
An overwhelming 80% of voters questioned--whites, blacks, Asian Americans
and Latinos--said California's schools should teach in English. Yet so
politically charged has the debate over bilingual education become that
many were astonished that Latinos, like everybody else, want children to
acquire English as soon as possible.
Of course all parents want their children
to succeed, and English is the language of success in this country. California
public schools have the task of educating 1.38 million students who speak
another language. This is nearly 25% of the state's public school enrollment.
Successful academic achievement requires every student to master English.
That is the ambitious goal of bilingual education.
The program works best when children who
speak a language other than English learn side by side with children who
speak English fluently. Each learns in both languages, taught by teachers
who are fluent in both. This two-way immersion is the most effective form
of bilingual instruction, but it is the least common because of a shortage
of bilingual teachers and the difficulty of establishing a balance between
English-speaking and non-English-speaking students.
California school districts operate a dozen
good two-way programs, among them the Korean-English system at Cahuenga
Elementary School near Los Angeles' Koreatown neighborhood. Cahuenga's
bilingual third-graders, taking standardized reading tests in English,
surpassed the national average score and more than doubled the district's
average for English-speaking children. Unfortunately, this approach is
The initial classroom experience is significant.
When children are taught first in their primary language, they start learning
on their first day of school. They can ask the teacher questions. They
fit in. They feel welcome--in contrast to the childhood experience of Los
Angeles County Supervisor Gloria Molina, who says she entered school speaking
only Spanish and ended up "losing" three years during her early
English-only education. Molina and millions like her suffered through the
old sink-or-swim method before Congress passed the Bilingual Education
Act of 1968 and the U.S. Supreme Court in 1974 guaranteed equal access
to public education for language minorities.
Hodgepodge Approach Is a Trap
Most researchers agree that children who
begin their studies in a language they understand can transfer their scholastic
skills to their new language. Well-planned and implemented bilingual education
programs work. But the hodgepodge of approaches in California trap too
many children far too long in classes taught in their primary language,
mostly Spanish, before they move into mainstream English-only classes.
They trickle out of bilingual programs at a disappointing rate of 7% a
year. Many stay seven years in bilingual classrooms, far too long. Five
years, the current target in the Los Angeles Unified School District for
moving students to English-only, is also too long.
Ruben Zacarias, the bilingual superintendent
of the LAUSD, has said that three years should be the goal for transfers.
This issue cannot be fully understood without
mention of the impetus for the intensifying debate--the proposed "English
for the Children" initiative, intended for the June 1998 ballot. This
measure--not yet qualified for the ballot--would dismantle current bilingual
programs in the schools and permit just one year of intensive, special
instruction in English unless parents specifically sought a waiver to place
or keep their child in bilingual classes. "English for the Children"
is bankrolled by Ron K. Unz, a former Republican gubernatorial hopeful
and Silicon Valley entrepreneur. He cites as his motivation last year's
Latino parent boycott of the Ninth Street Elementary School in downtown
Los Angeles. Parents pulled their children out of bilingual classes for
two weeks to make their point: They wanted their sons and daughters taught
in English. It is school bureaucrats unwilling to be flexible and the lobbied-'til-it-can't-act
Legislature that Unz can thank for the apparent early and strong support
for his initiative.
In the L.A. school district, 93% of children
who do not speak English speak Spanish. The remainder speak nearly 100
languages and dialects, including Armenian, Korean, Pilipino, Cantonese,
Vietnamese, Russian and Farsi. Supt. Zacarias says he wants children who
lack English fluency to be tested in a way that would allow more pupils
to start out in English-speaking classes while they are young enough to
easily absorb a new language. Research indicates infancy and early childhood
are the best time to learn a language. The majority of Latino children
speak little or no English when they enter California public schools, usually
because no English is spoken in their homes. To address this deficit, Washington
or Sacramento should consider creating a new program, modeled on Head Start,
that would concentrate on English language development in the preschool
Zacarias says parents constantly complain
to him that they can't get their children out of bilingual classes. Under
current policy, to move into mainstream classes taught in English, students
are required to perform at grade level in English on a standardized test.
That hurdle needs rethinking; is the LAUSD demanding grade-level performance
from non-English speakers when it routinely promotes English-speaking students
not doing grade-level work?
Bilingual education is big business in California.
Nearly $400 million is spent annually on supplemental materials, extra
teachers, instructional aides and other resources. The state has allocated
$368 million in supplemental funds for poor students this year, and an
estimated two-thirds goes to bilingual programs. Washington sent California
districts nearly $87.5 million in bilingual funding for fiscal 1997. The
LAUSD, meanwhile, allocated $224 extra per limited-English student this
year, which provides a strong disincentive to move students through the
system at anything other than a snail's pace. To provide an incentive,
the LAUSD this year also started paying schools a bonus of $139 for each
student who shifts to English-only classes.
Bilingual teachers, meanwhile, receive up
to $5,000 in annual bonuses, and the state's schools still need an estimated
20,000 more. About 13,600 are currently in the classroom, teaching only
about 30% of the students eligible for instruction in their primary language.
The teacher shortage is leading to much-needed
experimentation. The nation is watching two experiments in Orange County.
Westminster, under a temporary state waiver, teaches Spanish-speaking and
Vietnamese children in English with part-time bilingual teacher's aides.
The district must show progress in English to continue to do so. The Orange
Unified School District got permission last month from a federal court
to drop bilingual education for one year for kindergarten through third
grade and is using English immersion techniques with the help of bilingual
Bilingual education done badly certainly
is not all that ails public education. An estimated 80% of limited-English
students are poor and face a variety of challenges before they enter the
schoolhouse door. The majority of the students in the state's public schools
in just the next few years will be Latino students--some poor, many working
and middle class who do speak English and resent the assumptions of bilingual
Largely a Job for Sacramento
Bilingual education needs fixing in California.
This is a job for Sacramento, which has tried unsuccessfully seven times
in the last decade to reform it. This year Assembly Speaker Cruz Bustamante
and others saw a major bilingual reform bill as possibly anti-Latino.
Long-ago history--bitter memories of a time
when children were punished and ridiculed for speaking Spanish at school--and
recent history in the form of the reprehensible Proposition 187 have an
effect. As a result, political activists understandably are suspicious
of anything that could be seen as yet another thinly veiled attack on immigrants.
But bilingual education is not meeting the high expectations set for it
Sacramento needs to find a way to make all
of California's schoolchildren bilingual, a skill that cannot be overvalued
in the smaller world they will inherit. But more years in bilingual education
does not mean better education. Bilingual education in order to acquire
English fluency should start as soon as possible and last no longer than
three years. That's the target in New York state, which also has a large
We give no comfort to the bigots who want
to end bilingual education because they don't like immigrants. We do not
embrace the doctrinaire who believe bilingual education is a political
tool to pound away at a host of historical sins. We stand with the children
who deserve better and whose parents are demanding better.
The number of limited-English proficient
students in California schools has than tripled since 1982. Today, nearly
half are in Los Angeles County. L.A. County: 557,640.
Source: California Department of Education